The Papacy, the Crusades, and the Church of Rome

How did the Pope of Rome come to be viewed as the chief bishop and vicar of Christ on earth? How should we understand the Church of Rome’s crusades against Islam? What historical factors and events gave rise to major changes and developments in the Church of Rome? Pastor Robert Elliott addresses these and other questions in the three lectures below. These lectures serve as part of the curriculum for our course HT 402 Medieval Church. For more information, email us at